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Applying Borders and Shading

Borders and Shading

Borders are rules you can add to any or all of the four sides of a paragraph. Shading is the color or artistic design you use as background for a paragraph. Borders and shading are formatting tools for enhancing text, paragraphs, table cells or frames. Commonly used borders and shading effects can be quickly added to text, paragraphs, frames and tables or table elements, using the Tables and Borders toolbar, or you can choose from a comprehensive list of borders and shading styles using the Borders and Shading dialog box. Borders or shading applied to a paragraph will usually affect the entire paragraph, extending from the left indent to the right indent, even if the paragraph contains no or a very short line of text. If you are not comfortable with the horizontal span of the effects of the borders or shading applied, you should adjust the indent markers on the ruler.

See the illustrative image below.

Fig: Border and Shading illustrated


Adding Borders and Shading Using the Tables and Borders Toolbar
  1. Select the item (text, paragraph, table cell, table, graphic or frame) you want to format with borders or shading.
  2. On the View menu, select Toolbars and then click Tables and Borders. The Tables and Borders toolbar appears.
  3. On the Tables and Borders toolbar, do one or more of the following:
    • To specify border settings and add it to the selected item
      1. Click the arrow next to Line Style, and then select the style of line you want for the border.
      2. Click the arrow next to LineWeight, and then select the option that matches how thin or thick you want the border line to be.
      3. Click the arrow next to Border Color, and then select the color you want for the border line.
      4. Click the arrow next to Border, and then select the type of border line your want.
    • To apply shading, click the arrow next to Shading Color, and then select the type of color you want as shading for the selected item.
NOTE:
  • To change an individual border line to a different or new style, weight, or color, first click the Line Style, Line Weight, and Border Color settings you want, and then click the border buttons representing the borderline you want the settings applied to. In other words, to add or change settings for the entire border or individual border line, follow step (i) through (iv) above in order.
  • The only type of border formatting you can apply to ordinary text (portion of text in a paragraph, other than the entire paragraph) is Outside Border. No matter the type of available border you click, except No Border, Word applies the Outside Border formatting to the partial text of the paragraph you selected.
  • The only types of border you can apply to a selected paragraph are: Outside Border, Left Border, Top Border, Right Border, and Bottom Border.
  • To apply the Horizontal Line border formatting, make sure no text is selected. If you select an item before clicking the Horizontal Line border type, the selected item will be overtyped (overwritten).
Fig: Tables and Borders toolbar



Adding Borders Using Borders and Shading Dialog Box
The Borders and Shading dialog box enables you to select from a list of preset or custom borders and shading styles to add to selected text, paragraphs, etc.
  1. Select the paragraph(s), cells, graphics, etc, to which you want to add borders.
  2. On the Format menu, click Borders and Shading. The Borders and Shading dialog box will be displayed.
  3. Click the Borders tab to display the Borders options page.
  4. Under Setting, click any of Box, Shadow, or 3-D, if you want border line on all four sides of the selected item.
  5. In the Style list, click a desired line for the border style you want.
  6. In the Color box, click the line color you want for the border.
  7. In the Width box, click the line width you want for the border.
    • To change individual border lines to a new style, color, or width, first click Custom, then click the Style, Color, and Width settings you want, and then click the border buttons in the Preview diagram to apply the new options.
  8. In the Apply to box, click the item on which to apply the borders and shading formatting settings you have selected.
  9. Click OK.
Fig: Borders and Shading dialog box showing border settings





Removing Borders
Just as easily as you added borders to items in a document, you can also remove the borders any time such borders no longer appeal to you. You can easily change such borders in the same approach. Follow the steps enumerated below to remove borders from items:
  1. Select the paragraph(s), table cells, frames, or graphics you want to remove borders from.
  2. On the Formatting toolbar, click the arrow next to the Border button and click No Border.
Alternatively, on the Format menu, click Borders and Shading. From the Borders and Shading dialog box, click the Borders tab, under Setting, click None and then click OK.




Adding Shading Using the Borders and Shading Dialog Box
  1. Select the paragraphs, cells, graphics, or frames to which you want to add shading.
  2. On the Format menu, click Borders and Shading. The Borders and Shading dialog box is displayed.
  3. Click the Shading tab.
  4. Do one or more of the following:
    • From the color palette under Fill, click the fill color you want for the shading. If you want additional colors, click the More Colors button.
    • In the Style box, click a shading style to be applied over the fill color. (Click Clear to apply only the Fill color, click Solid to apply only the pattern color, or click any pattern style to apply both fill and pattern colors.)  
    • In the Color box, click a color for the lines and dots in the shading pattern you selected. This box will not be available if Clear is the current selection in the Style box.
  5. In the Apply to box, click the appropriate item on which to apply the shading formatting.
  6. Click the OK button

Fig: Borders and Shading dialog box showing shading settings




Removing Shading/Shading Settings
  1. Select the text, paragraphs, cells, graphics, or frames from which you want to remove shading.
  2. On the Format menu, click Borders and Shading, and then click the Shading tab in the Borders and Shading dialog box that appears.
  3. Do one or both of the following:
    • To rid the current selection of any fill color applied, click No Fill, under Fill.
    • To rid the current selection of any styles applied, click Clear in the Style box, under Patterns.
  4.  In the Apply to box, select an appropriate option.
  5. Click OK.




Change the Width of a Bordered or Shaded Area in a Paragraph
Borders and shading applied to a paragraph are added relative to the indents, so that the shading and border lines extend from the left indent of the selected paragraph to the right indent of the paragraph. Even if the selected paragraph contains only a short line of text, or no text at all, borders and shading added will always extend from the left indent of the selected paragraph to the right indent of the paragraph. Using the indent markers on the horizontal ruler, you can easily adjust the width of the bordered or shaded area in a paragraph containing short lines of text, to enhance its beauty. Here are the steps you should follow to change the width of the bordered or shaded area in a paragraph with short lines of text.

Fig: Adjusting the width of a bordered or shaded area in a paragraph with a short line of text

  1. Position the insertion point in the paragraph with short lines of text to display the indent markers for that paragraph on the ruler.
  2. Drag the indent markers on the horizontal ruler to adjust the width of the bordered or shaded area.
    For a left-aligned paragraph, I'll recommend you drag the right-indent marker to adjust the width of the bordered or shaded area in the paragraph; and for a right-aligned paragraph, drag the small box below the left-indent marker; while for a centered paragraph, I'll recommend you adjust the width appropriately from left and right, by dragging the small box below the left indent marker to move the left and first-line indent markers, and then drag the right-indent marker proportionately.
Fig: Paragraphs with different alignments showing adjusted borders above a paragraph with a short line of text






Adding Borders Above, Between, or Below a Group of Paragraphs
If you apply a border to a group of paragraphs that have the same indents, Word encloses all the selected paragraphs within a single border of the setting you specified. For instance, if you select a group of paragraphs having the same indents and apply a Box border, Microsoft Word displays a single box enclosing all the selected paragraphs, rather than enclosing each paragraph in a separate box. Also, if you select a group of paragraphs having the same indents and apply a top and bottom border, Microsoft Word displays one border above and another one below the whole block of selected paragraphs. In this circumstance, each of the paragraphs has the format, but borders are visibly displayed for only the first and last paragraphs in the group. If you copy/cut one of the paragraphs and then paste it in another location, borders will be displayed above and below the pasted text.
You can also add borders between a group of selected paragraphs. The button for adding borders between paragraphs will appear only when two or more paragraphs are selected.
To add borders above, between, or below a group of paragraphs

Fig: Borders and Shading dialog box showing the options on the Borders tab page

  1. Select the group of paragraphs.
    Make sure the selected paragraphs have the same indents.
  2. On the Format menu, click Borders and Shading, and then click the Borders tab in the Borders and Shading dialog box that is displayed.
  3. Select the options you want for the border lines in the Style, Color, and Width boxes.
  4. Do one or more of the following:

  5. To Click

    Add a border to the top of the selected paragraphs.
    To add a border to the bottom of the selected paragraphs.
    To add a border to the left of the selected paragraphs.
    To add a border t the right of the selected paragraphs.
    To add borders between selected paragraphs.

  6. If you want a different line style, color, or width, for individual border line, repeat steps 3 and 4 for each border line you want to change.
  7. Click OK
Fig: A group of paragraphs formatted with different border settings






Add Borders to a Group of Paragraphs with Different Indents
Under the heading above, I mentioned that if you apply a border to a group of paragraphs that have the same indents, Word encloses all the selected paragraphs within a single border of the setting you specified. This will not be the case when you apply such borders to a group of paragraphs having different indents. For instance, if you select a group of paragraphs with different indents and apply a Box border to them, Word places each paragraph in a separate box. This will not make a beautiful sight, you know? To place a group of paragraphs with different indents into a single box, follow these steps.
  1. Position the insertion point before the first paragraph in the group.
  2. On the Standard toolbar, click the Insert Table button.
    A grid appears below the button.
  3. Drag over the grid and highlight only the first box, and then release the mouse button.
    This creates a 1 X 1 Table, i.e, a table with one row and one column.
  4. Fig: Creating  tables using the Insert Table button
  5. Select the of paragraphs you want to put into a single box.
  6. On the Standard toolbar, click the Cut button; position the insertion point in the table, and then click Paste on the Standard toolbar.
    All the paragraphs are now enclosed within a single box.
  7. If you do not want a border line on any side of the box, or if you want to change the line style, color or width for all or any of the border lines, do the following.
    1. On the Standard toolbar, click the Tables and Borders button.
      The Tables and Borders toolbar is displayed.
    2. Click the Table Move handle to select the entire table (box), and do one or more of the following:
    3. Fig: Placing paragraphs with different indents in a single boxed border
      • To remove the border line from any side of the table, choose No Border in the Line Style box, and then click the button for that border in the Tables and Borders toolbar.
      • To change the line style, color, or width for any side of the table, select the options you want in the appropriate boxes, and then click the appropriate button for that border in the Tables and Borders toolbar.
  8. Click outside the table when you are through.

Fig: Paragraphs with different indents neatly enclosed by a single boxed border







How to set the Spacing Between Borders and the Contents of the Paragraph 
You can adjust the amount of space between text and the top, bottom, left and right edges of the border.
  1. Select the paragraph(s).
  2. On the Format menu, click Borders and Shading, and then click the Borders tab.
  3. Select the options you want for the borders, and then click Paragraph in the Apply to box.
  4. Click the Options button.
    The Border and Shading Options dialog box is displayed.
  5. Fig: Border and Shading Options dialog box for setting paragraph border spacing from text
  6. Enter the distance you want between the text and the top, bottom, left and right edges of the border, in the Top, Bottom, Left, and Right boxes, respectively.
  7. Click OK
  8. Click OK.
Alternatively,
  1. Move the mouse pointer over any of the border lines until the pointer becomes a double-headed arrow pointing opposite sides.
  2. Click and drag to either direction indicated by the pointer.
  3. Release the mouse button when you achieve the desired distance between the text and the edge of the border.
Fig: Adjusting the space between borders and a paragraph






How to Increase the Shaded Area Around Text in a Shaded Paragraph
If you apply shading to a paragraph, without applying borders to it, you will usually find it impossible to increase the shaded area around the text in the paragraph. The following are the tricks to help you get around this problem.
  1. Select the paragraph.
  2. On the Format menu, click Borders and Shading, and then click the Shading tab.
  3. Click the fill color you want under Fill; if necessary, select an option in the Style box for the shading to be applied over the fill color, and if necessary also, click a color in the Color box for the lines and dots in the selected shading pattern; and then select Paragraph in the Apply to box.
  4. Click the Borders tab, and then click Box under Setting.
  5. In the Style box, click a very tiny line, and then click White in the Color box, or choose a color that is the same as the color you selected for the fill color.
    With this setting, the border lines will not be visible around the paragraph. Only the shading will.
  6. In the Apply to box, click Paragraph, and then click the Options button.
  7. Enter higher values in the Top, Bottom, Left, and Right boxes to increase the space between text and the border.
    This will eventually increase the shaded area around text in the shaded paragraph.
  8. Click OK.
  9. Click OK.






Adding Page Border
Page borders can be a very terrific way of enhancing the appearance of a page, section or the whole document. In addition to the many border style and color settings with which you can format the page, pages in the current section, or the whole document, Word also offers you numerous fantastic graphical page border design arts to use in place of the current Style settings, to add creativity to the pages. Note that the Art list may not be available if you did not choose the full Installation option when installing Word.

Fig: Page border illustrated

To format the current page, pages in the current section, or the whole document pages with page border, use the following steps.
  1. On the Format menu, click Borders and Shading, and then click the Page Border tab in the Borders and Shading dialog box that appears.
  2. Do one or more of the following:
    • In the Style list, click a desired line for the border style you want, and if necessary, in the Color box, click the line color you want for the border.
    • Click one of the border options under Setting.
    • Choose a desired width option for the border in the Width box.
    • To specify an artistic border, such as trees, select an option in the Art box. 
    • You can click the arrow buttons in the Width box to adjust the thickness or thinness of the artistic border.
    • To specify that the border appear on a particular side of a page, such as only at the top, click Custom under Setting. Under Preview, click where you want the border to appear. 
  3. To specify a particular page or section for the border to appear in, click the option you want under Apply to.
  4. Click OK.
Fig: Borders and Shading dialog box showing page border settings






Setting Additional Options for Page Borders
In adding page borders, you can specify the exact position of the border on the page, among others. You can specify whether the page border is measured relative to the edge of page, or margins. These options and additional settings you will learn to apply by following these instructions.
  1.  On the Format menu, click Borders and Shading, and then click the Page Border tab.
  2. Select the options you want in the Style, Color, Width, and Art boxes, and then click a desired option in the Apply to box.
  3. Click the Options button.
    The Border and Shading Options dialog box is displayed.
  4. Fig: Border and Shading Options dialog box for setting page border options
  5. In the Measure from box, 
    • Click Edge of Page, to position the outside edge of the page border relative to the edge of the page.
    • Click Text, to position the inside edge of the page border relative to the page margin.
      Selecting this option, you can define how far from the margins, and consequently text, the page border will be.
      If you choose this option, the width of the page border changes in response to adjustments made to the margins.
      Do one or more of the following:
      • Clear the Surround header check box, if you want the header printed above the top page border.
      • Clear the Surround footer check box, if you want the footer printed below the bottom page border.
      • If you want paragraph borders and table edges aligned with page border, so that any gaps between adjoining borders are removed, click the Align paragraph borders and table edges with page border check box.
  6. Enter the distance you want between the text and the top, bottom, left and right edges of the border, in the Top, Bottom, Left, and Right boxes, respectively.
  7. Click OK.
  8. Click OK.
Fig: Page border measured from Text---------------------------------------- Fig: Page border measured from Edge of page

TIP
Always see to it that the page border is well distanced from the margin to avoid placing it in the unprintable area at the edge of the page.





Removing Page Borders
To remove page borders from a page, pages in a section, or the entire document, follow these steps.
  1. On the Format menu, click Borders and Shading, and then click Page Border in the dialog box.
  2. Under Setting, click None.
  3. In the Apply to box, select the part of the document (i.e Page, Section, or Whole Document) from which you want to remove page border.
  4. Click OK.




Adding Artistic Borders Above or Below a Paragraph
In addition to the various line styles you can use to add borders to paragraphs and pages in Word, Microsoft Word also offers another set of line styles with which you can add artistic borders above, below, or within a paragraph, or used as a page border. You must have noticed that the Art box is not available in the Borders tab, but on the Page Border tab only. The Horizontal Line button gives you access to a wide variety of artistic horizontal lines you can insert anywhere in a document. 
Fig: Artistic horizontal borders below paragraphs
To add an artistic top and/or bottom border to a paragraph, or page, do the following.
    li style="text-align: justify;">Position the insertion point above or below the paragraph where you want the border to be. To use any of these lines as a page border, position the insertion point in the header or footer area.
  1. On the Format menu, click Borders and Shading.
  2. Click the Horizontal Line button in the Borders and Shading dialog box.
    The Horizontal Line dialog box is displayed.
  3. Click the line style you like, or click Import to insert a line from another software or drawing of compatible format.
  4. Click OK.









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Paragraph Formatting: Tab Stops, Line Spacing, Paragraph Spacing



Tab Stops
In  Word, a tab stop is a horizontal position that is set as the stop point for the insertion point after the TAB key has been pressed. Tab stops are set on the horizontal ruler to indicate a stop position for the cursor on pressing the tab key, marking off a space for indenting and aligning a column of text horizontally on a page. Tab stops are used to set tabs. A tab is an indentation (created by pressing the Tab key) at the beginning of a line to indicate the beginning of a new paragraph in a document.



Tab stops are used for creating quick and simple columns, with each column containing a different category of information. With tabs, you do not need to press the space bar several times to align a paragraph at different columns. All you need to do is set desired tab stops and then press TAB to move the insertion point to to the next tab stop in the current paragraph. Note that each paragraph in a document can be formatted with the same or different tab settings.
By default, tab stops are set at intervals of 0.5-inch from the left margin and the first line of text you enter is aligned at the tab stop. Word presents five tab buttons you can use to set tab stops for aligning text and numbers. These are:

  • Left-aligned tab button
used in setting tab stops for aligning text and numbers flush left of the tab stop.
  • Centered tab button
used in setting tab stops for aligning text at the center of the tab stop.

  • Right-aligned tab button
used in setting tab stops for flushing text right of the tab stop.
  • Decimal tab button
specifically used in setting tab stops for aligning numbers at the decimal point on a numeric column.
  • Bar tab button
used in setting tab stops for inserting thin vertical lines through a paragraph to separate tabular columns of entries.


You can set tab stops easily and quickly using the Horizontal Ruler or set and include additional tabs-related features using the Tabs dialog box. Such tab stops so set with additional tab-related feature give the document a more professional look. You can also use shortcut keys (Ctrl + M) to quickly indent a paragraph to the next tab stop.

NOTE:
  • Tab stop settings affect only selected paragraphs.
  • It is easier to set up columns of text and numbers using a table rather than tab stops.
  • Word inserts non-printing arrow-like characters in your document to indicate the positions of tab stops. Click the Show/Hide button on the Standard toolbar to display or hide these characters.
     

Setting Tab Stops Using the Ruler
The horizontal ruler in Word holds buttons with which tab stops can be quickly and easily created. The following are the steps required to set tab stops in a paragraph:
  1. Select the paragraph in which you want to set a tab stop.
  2. Click the Tab Alignment button at the far left of the horizontal ruler until the button for the type of tab you want is displayed. These include
  3. Left Tab 
    Right Tab  
    Center Tab 
    Decimal Tab
    Bar Tab
  4. Click a position on the horizontal ruler where you want to set a tab stop.
  5. The tab marker for the tab button you clicked will immediately appear on that position on the ruler.  
    Note:
    • From my experience, the tab marker may not appear in the position clicked on the ruler, if you simply clicked a white space. To have the tab marker on a position on the ruler, please click one of the calibration marks on the ruler as the position for the tab stop.
    • You can modify the type of the tab stop by following the steps above or change the position by clicking and dragging the tab marker to a new position on the ruler.
    See the image below for an illustration of the use of the five types of tab stops.


Setting Tab Stops Using the Tabs Dialog Box
The Tabs command on the Format menu is used to invoke the Tabs dialog box, with which you can specify precise measurements and multiple settings for a tab stop.  
To set a tab stop for a paragraph using the Tabs dialog box
  1. Select the paragraph in which you want to insert a tab stop.
  2. On the Format  menu, click Tabs. The Tabs dialog box appears. TIP: You can also display the Tabs dialog box by clicking the Tabs button within the Paragraph dialog box.
    t
  3. In the Tabs dialog box, enter a numerical value in the Tab stops position box, for the position for a new tab. Alternatively, select an existing tab stop, if any, from the List box under the Tab stop position box.
  4. Under Alignment, do one of the following to align text typed at the tab stop:
    CLICK THIS RADIO BUTTONTO
    Left Extend text to the right of the tab stop.
    Centercenter text at the tab stop.
    RightExtend text to the left from the tab stop, but text invariably extends to the right if text fills the space to the left of the tab stop.
    DecimalAlign a decimal point at the tab stop, but text or numbers without a decimal point extends to the left of the tab stop.
    BarInsert a vertical line at the tab stop.
  5. Click the OK button.



Setting Tab stops with Leader Characters (Tab Leaders)
A leader character is a solid, dotted, or dashed line Word can insert in your document to fill the empty space to the left of a tab stop. After you press the TAB key, the insertion point is moved to the next tab stop, and the specified leader character immediately appears to fill the empty space left to the left of the tab stop. Leader characters make a line of text easier to read and play a significant role in the orderliness and readability of certain documents. For example, you must have seen solid, dotted, or dashed lines used in a table of contents and that fill the space between the chapter names and the page numbers. See the image below for illustration.


 Steps to set tab stops with leader characters
  1. Select the paragraphs in which you want to insert leader character before a tab stop.
  2. On the Format menu, click Tabs, to invoke the Tabs dialog box.
  3. Select or type a number in the Tab stop position box. (This is the position at which a tab stop is to be placed.)
  4. Under Alignment, click a desired radio button to align text typed at the tab stop.
  5. Under Leader, choose the radio button for the leader character you want. See the following table:
    CLICK
    TO
    (Option 2: Dotted Leader Line)
    Fill the empty space to the left of the tab stop with a dotted leader line.
    (Option 3: Dashed Leader Line)
    Fill the empty space to the left of the tab stop with a dashed leader line.
    (Option 4: Solid Leader Line)
    Fill the empty space to the left of the tab stop with a solid leader line.
  1. Click the Set button.
  2. Click the OK button.

The following images illustrate the step-by-step guide to using tab stops and leader characters to align a table of contents on a page.

Step 1



Step 2



Step 3



Step 4




Final Output






Moving a Tab Stop
You can also modify the position of a tab stop by moving it to another position on the ruler.  
To move a tab stop
  1. Select the paragraph that contains the tab stop you want to move (modify its position). The tab marker for the tab stop will immediately appear on the ruler.
  2. Drag the tab marker to the right or left on the ruler.

Clearing A Tab Stop
A tab stop can be removed or cleared entirely from a document if it's no longer desired. You can clear a tab stop using either the Tabs dialog box or using the ruler.

Clearing a tab stop using the Tabs dialog box
  1. Select the paragraphs from which a tab stop need be removed/cleared.
  2. On the Format menu, click Tabs display the Tabs dialog box.
  3. Do one of the following:
    • To clear tab stops from the selected paragraph only, in the list box under the Tabs stops position box, click the number for the tab stop measurement to be cleared, click Clear button, and then click OK.
    • To remove all tab stops from the selected paragraphs, click Clear All and then click the OK button.

Clearing a tab stop using the Ruler
  1. Click or select the paragraph in which to clear a tab stop. The ruler now displays all the tab markers for tab stops set in the paragraph.
  2. Drag the tab marker off the ruler.


Changing the Spacing between Default Tab Stops in the Active Document
  1. On the Format menu, click Tabs. The Tabs dialog box will be displayed.
  2. In the Default tab stops box, type or select the distance you want between tab stops.
  3. Click OK.


Changing the Spacing between Default Tab Stops for the Active and New Documents
The effect of the changes you make to the default tab stop spacing in a document in Word is restricted to only the active document, and does not affect custom tab stops set for existing paragraphs in the active document.

However, if you want the changes you make to the default tab stop spacing to affect subsequent documents you create, you'll need to do it in the document template from which you create new documents. To be on the safe side, I wouldn't want you to mess up the default template on which New Blank Documents are based. For this reason, I'll only teach you, here, how to change the spacing between default tab stops for a new document template you'll create. Anytime you want all the documents you create to have the default tab spacing measurement you specified in the new template you created, you'll simply need to select the template and then create new documents from it.   Now, let's do it!

Steps to create a new document template having a modified spacing between default tab stops:
  1. From the File menu, click New. The New Document task pane is displayed.
  2. From the New Document task pane, under New from template,  click General Templates. The Templates dialog box is displayed.
  3. In the Templates dialog box, click the General tab, click Blank Document, under Create New click Template, and then click OK.
  4. Now, to set a new default spacing between tab stops: On the File menu, click Tabs, then in the Default tab stops box, type a measurement for the space you want between tab stops, and then click OK.
  5. Save the document with a name in the Templates folder.
    • The name of the template you created will be listed in the General tab in the Templates dialog box.
    • To base a new blank document on the template you just created, on the File menu, click New, under New from template, click the name of the template from the list or if you did not find it, click General Templates, click the General tab in the Templates dialog box, click the name of the template from the list, click Document option under Create New and then click OK.
Fig: Templates Dialog Box






Line Spacing
Line spacing is the distance between the lines of text in a paragraph. Line spacing is a paragraph format. The height of each line of text in a paragraph is determined by line spacing. You must have noticed that Word leaves an equal amount of space between the lines of text in a paragraph which uses a uniform font size. This is because Word is preset to use single line spacing, though this depends on the size and design of the font characters. The distance between two lines in a paragraph in Word will be uniform, only if all the characters have the same Font Size. If the size of, at least, one character in a line within a paragraph is larger than the remaining characters, the height (distance from the line above it ) of that line will be increased. Generally, the size and the design of font determines the height of lines. A paragraph formatted with 12-point font size, with double spacing will not have the same height as a paragraph formatted with the same double line spacing, but with 14-point font size.


Fig: Paragraphs Formatted with different Line Spacing Settings



You can change line spacing at random to 1.5-line, double or multiple, but such changes will affect the entire selected paragraph or the paragraph containing the insertion point. You can set or change line spacing for selected paragraphs via
  • Shortcut keys.
  • Formatting toolbar.
  • Paragraph dialog box


Setting or Changing Line Spacing Using Shortcut Keys
  1. Select the  paragraphs whose line spacing you want to change.
  2. Do one of the following:
    • Press Ctrl + 1, to format the paragraph with single-space lines.
    • Press Ctrl + 2, to format the paragraph with double-space lines.
    • Press Ctrl + 5, to format the paragraph with 1.5-line space.
    • Press Ctrl + 0, to add or remove one line space preceding a paragraph.


Setting or Changing Line Spacing Using the Formatting Toolbar
  1. Select the paragraph whose line spacing you want to change.
  2. On the Formatting toolbar, click the arrow next to the Line Spacing button, and then click an option for the line spacing you desire.
Fig: Line Spacing Options




Setting or Changing Line Spacing Using the Paragraph Dialog Box
The Paragraph dialog box enables you set or change line spacing, using preset or custom settings. The following steps will guide in using the Paragraph dialog box to set or change line spacing.
  1. Select the paragraphs or put the insertion point in the paragraph whose line spacing you want to change.
  2. On the Format menu, click Paragraph. The Paragraph dialog box is displayed.
  3. In the Paragraph dialog box, under Spacing, Select the type of line spacing you want from the Line Spacing drop-down list.
    • If you select At Least, Exactly, or Multiple in the Line Spacing drop-down list box, then you must enter a value (an amount of vertical space between lines of text) in the At box.
    • The Preview box shows how the document will look with the selected options after you click OK
  4. Click OK




Paragraph Spacing
In Word, a paragraph is any amount of characters, and graphics that is followed by a Paragraph Mark (). Paragraph spacing, therefore, is the vertical distance (space) between paragraphs, not the lines of text making up the paragraph. A paragraph can have spaces before and after it. For example, the distance between Paragraph 1 and Paragraph 2 can be a combination of the spacing after Paragraph 1 and the space before Paragraph 2.You can specify the space before and after paragraphs using the Paragraph dialog box, instead of pressing ENTER repeatedly to add blank spaces (lines) before or after a paragraph.
Fig: Paragraph Dialog Box





Changing Paragraph Spacing
  1. Select the paragraphs or position the insertion point in the paragraph whose paragraph spacing you want to change.
  2. On the Format menu, click Paragraph. The Paragraph dialog box is displayed.
  3. Click the Indents and Spacing tab, and do one or both of the following:
      li>In the Before box, under Spacing, enter a number for the amount of space to precede each selected paragraph.
    • In the After box, under Spacing, enter a number for the amount of space to follow each selected paragraph.
  4. Click the OK button.

















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