Custom Search

Creating Cross-references


A cross-reference informs the reader where additional information is located in the same document or another document  It gives readers quick access to related information in other parts of your document or other documents — for example, "For more information, see 'Dividing a Document into Sections' on page 42." To cross-reference an item in another document, though, you need to first combine the documents into a master document.

If you change an item you've referred to (for example, if you change a title or move text), Word makes it easy to update the cross-reference without retyping it. This is because cross-references are fields in the document. As such, Word can update these fields automatically whenever you print the document, or you can choose to manually update the fields yourself.

You can create cross-references to:
  • Headings formatted with the built-in heading styles that come with Word - that is, Heading 1 through Heading 9.
  • Footnotes and endnotes created by using the Footnote command.
  • Captions (added to tables, figures, equations, etc) created by using the Caption command.
    For more information, visit the post, Adding Captions, later in this blog.
  • Items marked with bookmarks.
    For more information, visit the post, Using Bookmarks, later in this blog.
  • Numbered paragraphs.
To create a cross-reference, you must first create the applicable item (i.e. one or more of  headings, footnotes and endnotes, captions, bookmarks, or numbered lists).



Creating Cross-references
Creating cross-references basically involves completing these two steps:
  • Typing the introductory text for the cross-reference directly in the document.
    Examples, depending on the item being referred, you might type:
    For more information, see"
    (including the quotation mark), or See also ", or See, or Refer to.
  • Select information in the Cross-reference dialog box that tells Word what reference information to insert and update in the document.

    For example, to reference a section title, you select Heading in the Reference type box, Heading text in the Insert reference to box, and the specific title in the For which heading box.

A cross-reference can contain more than one type of reference information that Word will update. For example, you can refer to both a heading and a page number.
The dialog box stays open so that you can add information, such as a page number, or start a new cross-reference.


Use these steps to create a cross-reference

  1. In the document, type the introductory text that begins the cross-reference.
    (For example, type For more information, see "); and leave the insertion point where you want the cross-reference to appear.
  2. On the Insert menu, point to Reference, and then click Cross-reference.
    The Cross-reference dialog box is displayed.
  3. In the Reference type box, select the type of item you want to refer to — for example, Heading.
  4. In the Insert reference to box, select the information about that item you want Word to insert in the document — for example, Heading text.
    The items that appear in this list correspond to the item you selected in the Reference type box.
  5. In the For which box, click the specific item you want to refer to.
    For example, if you select Heading in the Reference type box, and the document has nine headings, click the heading you want to refer to.

    NOTE
    • If your document does not contain the right item, nothing will be displayed in this box. For example, if you select Heading in the Reference type box, but the document contains no text
      formatted with a built-in heading style that comes with Word; or you select Table in the Reference type box, whereas, the document contains no table with a caption attached to it using the Caption command, nothing will be displayed in the For which box. So make sure the document has the right type of item before you start the cross-referencing operation.
    • If the item you want doesn't appear in the list here, you might need to click a different item in the Reference type list.

  6. To allow readers to jump to the referenced item, select the Insert as hyperlink check box.
    If the item you're referencing is located in another document, both documents must be part of a master document.
  7. If the Include above/below check box is available, you can select this check box to include information about the relative position of the referenced item.
    For example, suppose you're inserting a cross-reference to the page number of a heading called "Adding Captions." If the heading appears above the cross-reference, the cross-reference will read “Adding Captions above.” If the heading appears on another page, the cross-reference will read “Adding Captions on page 47.
  8. Click the Insert button.
    The dialog box stays open so that you can add information, such as a page number, or start a new cross-reference.
  9. To add additional cross-reference information, click in the document where you want the additional information, and type any additional text you want. When you finish typing, click back on the dialog box, and repeat steps 3 through 8.

    TIP: If you need to see the document behind the dialog box, click and drag the title bar to move the dialog box.

  10. Click the Close button, when you finish inserting cross-references.


Note   Word inserts cross-references as fields. If you see, for example, something similar to {REF _Ref277642913 \* MERGEFORMAT}, Word is displaying field codes instead of field results (the cross-references). To see the field results (the cross-references), press ALT+F9, or right-click the field code, and then click Toggle Field Codes on the shortcut menu.





Refer to the Same Footnote or Endnote More Than Once

  1. Position the insertion point where you want the reference information to appear.
  2. On the Insert menu, point to Reference, and then click Cross-reference.
  3. In the Reference type box, click Footnote or Endnote.
  4. In the For which box, click the note to which you want to refer.
  5. In the Insert reference to box, click Footnote number or Endnote number.
  6. Click Insert, and then click the Close button.
    The new reference is inserted as unformatted text rather than as superscript.

Format the new reference as superscript
The reference inserted after performing the procedure above is an unformatted text, rather than a superscript. Use the following procedure to format the inserted, unformatted text as superscript.
  1. Select the footnote.
  2. If the Styles and Formatting task pane is not open, click the Styles and Formatting button on the Formatting toolbar.
  3. In the Styles and Formatting task pane, click Custom in the Show box.
    The Format Settings dialog box is displayed.
  4. In the Format Settings dialog box, select the Footnote Reference or Endnote Reference check boxes, and then click OK.
  5. In the Styles and Formatting list, click Footnote Reference or Endnote Reference.
    Superscript formatting is applied to the footnote.
    Looking at the result, you'll find that both the footnote reference text and the footnote reference number now appear on the same level - neither is raised above the other. This shows the footnote has been formatted as superscript. To confirm this, click the Reveal Formatting command on the Format menu. Then click the footnote and see the details of the formats applied to it in the Reveal Formatting task pane.

    If you just click the arrow beside Footnote Reference or Endnote Reference, a style will not be applied.





Note   The new number that Word inserts is the actual cross-reference to the original reference mark. If you add, delete, or move a note, Word updates the cross-reference number when you print the document or when you select the cross-reference number and then press F9 to update it manually. If you have trouble selecting the cross-reference number by itself, try selecting some surrounding text along with it, and then press F9.





Paragraph Number Options in Cross-references
When you create cross-references to numbered paragraphs, especially outline numbered list items, you have a number of options at your disposal in Word to help you specify how exactly you want the reference to appear. If you select the Numbered item option in the Reference type box, the corresponding paragraph number options that appear in the Insert reference to box are: Paragraph number, Paragraph number (no context), and Paragraph number (full context). The way a reference appears when you create a cross-reference to a paragraph in an outline numbered list varies with each of these options. 

Using the paragraphs in a typical legal document containing outline numbered list or LISTNUM fields, as shown in the illustration (image) below, let us now see how each of the paragraph number options will display a reference if you create a cross-reference to any of the paragraphs from any of the paragraphs in the numbered list, or elsewhere in the document.

Paragraph number options

Paragraph number
The Paragraph number option displays the paragraph number and its relative position in an outline numbered list. Using the illustration above, consider these examples:
  • If you position the insertion point in the numbered paragraph 1.(a)(i), and then create a reference to paragraph 1.(a)(ii), the information inserted appears as "ii" because both paragraphs are subordinate to paragraph 1.(a).
  • If you position the insertion point in the numbered paragraph 1.(b), and then create a reference to paragraph 1.(a)(ii), the information inserted appears as  "(a)(ii)" because both paragraphs are subordinate to paragraph 1.
  • If you position the insertion point in the numbered paragraph 2.(a)(i), and then create a reference to paragraph 1.(a)(ii), the information inserted appears as "1.(a)(ii)" because no context is shared. (If you're using LISTNUM fields, you can add the \r switch to set the Paragraph number option.)

Paragraph number (no context)
This option displays the paragraph number without its relative position in the outline numbered list. For example:
  • If you create a cross-reference to paragraph 1.(a)(ii), the result will appear as "(ii)," regardless of the context of the reference. If you're using LISTNUM fields, you can add the \n switch to set the Paragraph number (no context) option.)

Paragraph number (full context)
This displays the complete paragraph number from anywhere in the document.
  • For example, a reference to paragraph 1.(a)(ii) from anywhere in the document appears as "1.(a)(ii)". (If you're using LISTNUM fields, you can add the \w switch to set the Paragraph number (full context) option.)


Notes
  • The paragraph number options are also available when you want to insert a cross-reference to a bookmark.
  • Microsoft Word does not display any trailing periods in the cross-reference. For example, cross-reference to a paragraph number formatted as 1.1.1. will not display the final period in the cross-reference.





Create Cross-references to Another Document
To create a cross-reference to an item located in another document, you need to first combine the documents into a master document. A master document is a "container" for subdocuments, and you can use it to set up and manage a long or multipart document, such as a book containing several chapters.

Once you combine both files into a master document, you can go ahead and cross-reference the item in the other document. To do this,
  1. Open the master document.
  2. Switch to normal view.
  3. Follow the steps "To create a cross-reference," above.



Revising and Updating Cross-references
Revising/changing cross-references can be one of various forms: You can change the introductory text in a cross-reference; or change what a cross-reference refers to, as well as change the reference information from a paragraph number to a page number. To revise the introductory text in a cross-reference, just retype the text. If you delete an item you refer to, Word displays an alert error message (in the field containing the inserted reference information) the next time you update cross-references so that you can change or delete the cross-reference. To delete reference information that Word inserted — for example, on page 6 — select the information and then press BACKSPACE or DELETE. Note that you must select the information to delete it,
because the text you see is actually a field result.
To change what a cross-reference refers to, or change the reference information from a paragraph number to a page number, or the such, see the procedures involved under the following subheadings.


Change what a cross-reference refers to
  1. Select the reference information that Word inserted in the document (for example, "Table 1").
    Do not select the introductory text (for example, "See also ").
  2. On the Insert menu, point to Reference, and then click Cross-reference.
  3. In the Reference type box, click the new item you want to refer to.
  4. Click the appropriate corresponding items in the Insert reference to, and the For which boxes.
  5. Click Insert, and then click the Close button when you are through.
Note   To modify the introductory text in a cross-reference, simply edit the text in the document.



Change reference information from a paragraph number to a page number
  1. Select the paragraph number that Word inserted in the document.
  2. On the Insert menu, point to Reference, and then click Cross-reference.
  3. In the Insert reference to list, select Page number, and then click the Insert button.
    In the document, Word changes the reference information from a paragraph number to a page number.
  4. Click the Close button.


NOTE 

Word adds a bookmark to a heading when you create a cross-reference to that heading. If you change a heading that is used in a cross-reference, make sure that bookmarks are visible before you change the heading to ensure that the changes you make are included in that bookmark. If changes are not included in that bookmark, the cross-reference to the heading will not be correct when it is updated. To view bookmarks, click Options on the Tools menu, and then select the View tab. Under Show, select the Bookmarks check box, and then click OK.




Updating Cross-references
When you print a document, Word automatically updates all cross-references. However, if you delete items that have cross references, you will have to manually update the cross-references. The procedure to manually
update a cross-reference is highlighted below.

Update cross-references to page numbers
If you delete, or move items that have cross-references from one page to another, you need to manually update the cross-references. Use this procedure to manually update fields if you move a cross-reference from one page to another.
  1. Do one of the following:
    • To update a single cross-reference, select it.
    • To update all cross-references, select the entire document by pressing
      CTRL+A
      , or click Select All on the Edit menu.
  2. Press F9, or right-click the selection, and then click Update Field on the shortcut menu.


Update fields or linked information before you print

If you intend and are ready to print a document containing several kinds of fields, such as cross-references, captions, linked information, etc, you can update them all in one go, using the procedure highlighted below:
  1. On the Tools menu, click Options, and then click the Print tab.
  2. Under Printing options, do one of the following:
    • To update fields, select the Update fields check box.
    • To update linked information, select the
      Update links check box.
  3. Click the OK button.


Update headers that include the chapter number and title
You can use the Cross-reference command to add a chapter number and title to a page header. If you renumber or rename the chapter, you can easily update the header. To do this, first apply a built-in heading style (Heading 1 through Heading 9) to the chapter number and title in the body of your document. Then click Header and Footer on the View menu. In your document, position the insertion point in the header, then point to Reference on the Insert menu, and then click Cross-reference. In the Cross-reference dialog box, select the heading that contains your chapter number and title, and click the Insert button. Then click the OK button.




RELATED POSTS

10 comments:

  1. Hi McBeeny. I love this post. it's short and informative. Please start posting on Word 2010. most people will find it very helpful.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Cool, informative, and helpful post. Keep it up!

    Let me see: You even include 'Confusing' option in the reactions. I'm impressed. I'd say it's the first of its kind. most bloggers want to hear or see only positive remarks from their readers.

    Whoeevr says this post is confusing should show us theirs. thanks.

    ReplyDelete
  3. @Clara: Thanks for the comment and the valuable suggestion. Honestly, I will start rolling out posts on Word 2007 and 2010 very soon.

    @Azeez: Thanks also for the comment and the observation. I can't help laughing loud.

    @Clara and Azeez: Please always leave a link to your blog or website when you comment so I can also visit your page. Thanks.

    ReplyDelete
  4. Thanks! I was looking for how to refer to the same Footnote more than once for Microsoft Word 2010. Using the Cross-reference option was the way for it.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Once doing so, were you able to figure out how to make those references super-script in Word 2010?

      Delete
    2. Never mind my prior post. I just figured it out. I did not realize I had an option for the "Insert Reference to". I just now chose Footnote number (formatted) and I get the superscript. So simple!

      Delete
  5. Hello. I have Word 2010 and these directions were awesome! The reason why I started to search on cross-references was due to your one section o refering to the same foonote more than once. I then attempted to work withi Format the new reference as superscript, but can't seem to figure it out in Word 2010. Have you created any helpful tips on cross-referencing for Word 2010 yet? Thank you.

    ReplyDelete
  6. Bake 10-20 minutes determined by thickness, until fish easily flakes.
    IVF has brought many hopes for the women who were unable to
    conceive naturally. It is non-invasive and requires no refrigeration the way injectable HCG does.


    Here is my web blog: hcg weight loss injections side effects

    ReplyDelete
  7. This is a detailed tutorial, thanks. I will love it, if you can post on Word 2016.

    ReplyDelete

Did you find this post helpful?
Please comment, or share your opinions.
Have a word of advice? Please offer suggestions.

Thanks for visiting.