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Editing Text


Editing a document basically involves making changes to the document. While creating a document, it is not uncommon to commit typographical errors. Sometimes you find stray characters in your document. These may come as a result of your fingers inadvertently hitting wrong keys, or maybe you simply did not hit the keys hard enough to enter the intended character. The result of all these is error of all kinds! Sometimes, too, your grammar may be bad. On discovering such errors, you will want to correct them. This is exactly the purpose of editing.

Word can be used to perform different kinds of editing on text or document graphics. Before you start editing, the insertion point must be positioned at the exact location where the changes have to take place. From there you can then select the text to be edited, if necessary.


 How to Move the Cursor (Insertion Point) in Microsoft Word

You can move the cursor around the in a document in Word using the mouse or the keyboard. With the mouse, you can click to easily get around.

With the keyboard, you can move around using the arrow keys. The arrow keys can be used to move up (using the Up Arrow key), down (using the Down Arrow key), left (using the Left Arrow key), and right (using the Right Arrow key).

You can also combine these arrow keys with other keys to alter the pattern or speed of the movement of the cursor in a document. The following table lists the keys used in moving around in a document.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

KEY/ KEY COMBINATION
FUNCTION(S)
Left ArrowMoves the insertion point one character to the left.
Right ArrowMoves the insertion point one character to the right.
Ctrl + Left ArrowMoves the insertion point one word to the left.
Ctrl + Right ArrowMoves the insertion point one word to the right.
Ctrl + Up Arrow Moves the insertion point one paragraph up.
Ctrl + Down ArrowMoves the insertion point one paragraph down.
Shift + TabMoves the insertion point one cell to the left (in a table).
TabMoves the insertion point one cell to the right (in a table).
Up ArrowMoves the insertion point up one line.
Down ArrowMoves the insertion point down one line.
EndMoves the insertion point to the end of the current line.
HomeMoves the insertion point to the beginning of the current line.
Alt + Ctrl + Page UpMoves the insertion point to the top of the document window. This combination basically moves the cursor to the beginning of the first line on the screen.
Alt + Ctrl + Page DownMoves the insertion point to the end of the document window (last line).
Page UpMoves the insertion point up one screen (scrolling).
Page DownMoves the insertion point down one screen (scrolling).
Ctrl + Page UpMoves the insertion point to the top of the previous page.
Ctrl + Page DownMoves the insertion point to the top of the next page.
Ctrl + End Moves the insertion point to the end of the document.
Ctrl + HomeMoves the insertion point to the beginning of the document.
Shift + F5Moves the insertion point to the location of the insertion point when the document was last closed.



Select Text and Graphics
It is usual practice to edit text and graphics in a document. However, your document might contain a large volume of text or graphics, and you may want to perform some kind of editing on one or more of them, without such editing affecting the other text or graphics in the document. In a situation like this, you need to specify the items you want to edit so that the software can single them out and perform the required actions on the, without extending such actions to the other or all items in the document. You specify the desired items by selecting or highlighting them.

You can select text and graphics, including non-adjacent items, i.e. items that are not next to each other, by using the mouse or the keyboard. For example, you can select a sentence on page 1 and a word in page 5. 

To select a graphic, simply click on it once. You will know that the graphic has been selected by the appearance of sizing handles around it.

Selecting text is not as basic as selecting graphic. Use the following steps to select any block of text:
  1. Position the insertion point where you want the selection to begin.
  2. Click and hold down the left mouse button and drag till you get to the point where you want the selection to end.
  3. Release the mouse button.
  • The text now appears highlighted indicating that it has been selected.


Select Non-Adjacent Items
Non-adjacent items are items that are not next to each other. In Word, you can select items that are not adjacent using these steps:
  1. Select the first item you want, such as a word or a paragraph.
  2. Hold down the Ctrl key.
  3. Select any additional items you want.
  • You can only select multiple objects of the same type, such as two or more text selections or two or more floating graphics, that aren't next to each other.



Select Text and Graphics Using the Mouse
With the mouse, you can easily select a graphic by clicking on it. Also, with the mouse, you can select different blocks of texts by double-clicking; clicking and dragging, or clicking a portion of text while holding down a keyboard key.

The following table shows you how you can select different blocks of text using an appropriate method.


                                                                                                                                                                      
TEXT TO SELECT
HOW TO SELECT
Any amount of textDrag over the text.
A wordDouble-click the word.
A line of textMove the pointer to the area at the left margin of the line, and click when the pointer starts pointing diagonally right.
A sentenceHold down Ctrl key, and then click anywhere in the sentence.
A paragraphMove the pointer to an  area at the left margin of the paragraph, and double-click when the pointer starts pointing diagonally right.Alternatively, triple-click anywhere in the paragraph.
Multiple paragraphsMove the pointer to an area at the left margin of the first paragraph, and then double-click and drag up or down to the last paragraph to be included in the selection.
A large block of textClick at the start of the selection, scroll to the point where you want the selection to end, and then hold down SHIFT and click.
An entire documentMove the pointer to the left margin and triple-click when the pointer starts pointing diagonally right.
Headers and footersIn Normal View, click Header and Footer on the View menu; in Print Layout View, double-click the dimmed header or footer text. Move the pointer to the area on the left margin of the header or footer and triple-click when the pointer starts pointing diagonally right.
Footnotes and endnotesClick in the pane, move the pointer to the area in the left margin of the text and triple-click when the pointer starts pointing diagonally right.
A vertical block of text (except within a table)Hold down ALT, and then drag over the text.
A graphicClick the graphic.
A text box or frameMove the pointer over the border of the frame or text box until the pointer becomes a four-headed arrow, and then click to see the sizing handles.



Select Text using the Keyboard
The SHIFT key on the keyboard helps to select text. In the preceding section, we discussed how to move the insertion point using the keyboard. In this section, you will learn how to select various ranges of text by combining the SHIFT key with other keys or the combination of keys that move the insertion point.

If you know the combination of keys used in moving the insertion point to specific positions in Word, then you can easily select text up to that particular limit by pressing the SHIFT key while pressing those combination of keys. For example, CTRL + LEFT ARROW keys move the insertion point to the previous word, while CTRL + SHIFT + LEFT ARROW will select text from the position of the insertion point to the beginning of the previous word.

Follow the simple steps below to select any amount of text using the keyboard:
  1. Hold down SHIFT.
  2. Press the combination of keys that move the insertion point. This selects the text.
  • To select non-adjacent portions of text, make the first selection, hold down CTRL, and then select other portions of text you want.

To Extend a Selection
You can extend a selection by combining SHIFT with the keys or combination of keys that move the insertion point. The following table shows the resulting selection when SHIFT is held while the keys that move the insertion point is/are pressed.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
KEY COMBINATION
SELECTS
SHIFT + RIGHT ARROWOne character to the right.
SHIFT + LEFT ARROWOne character to the left.
CTRL + SHIFT + RIGHT ARROWTo the end of a word.
CTRL + SHIFT + LEFT ARROWTo the beginning of a word.
SHIFT + ENDTo the end of a line.
SHIFT + HOMETo the beginning of a line.
SHIFT + DOWN ARROWOne line down.
SHIFT + UP ARROWOne line up.
CTRL + SHIFT + DOWN ARROWTo the end of a paragraph.
CTRL + SHIFT + UP ARROWTo the beginning of a paragraph.
SHIFT + PAGE DOWNOne screen down.
SHIFT + PAGE UPOne screen up.
CTRL + SHIFT + HOMETo the beginning of a document.
CTRL + SHIFT + ENDTo the end of a document.
ALT + CTRL + SHIFT + PAGE DOWNTo the end of a window.
CTRL + AThe entire document.
CTRL + SHIFT + F8, and then use the arrow keys; press ESC to
    cancel selection mode
A vertical block of text.
F8 + arrow keys; press ESC to cancel selection modeTo a specific location in a document.
F8, and then press LEFT ARROW or RIGHT ARROWSelects the nearest character.
F8 (press once to select a word, twice to select a sentence,
    and so forth)
Increase the size of a selection.
SHIFT + F8Reduce the size of a selection.


Cancel a Selection
When a selection is no longer needed, you'll have to cancel it. However, canceling a selection does not take as much rigor or technicality as selecting a text.

 To cancel a selection, do one of the following, where appropriate:
  • Click anywhere in the workspace, but the left margin.
  • Press any arrow key on the keyboard.
  • Press ESC if you had turned on selection mode using F8 or CTRL + SHIFT + F8



Delete Text or Graphic
To delete a graphic, click on it and press DELETE or BACKSPACE key on the keyboard. That is all you need to do to clear or delete a graphic.

To delete or clear a selected text, press DELETE or BACKSPACE, or type in new characters to overwrite it (if you intend replacing the selected text with a new text).

To clear characters or graphics to the left of the insertion point, press BACKSPACE key repeatedly until all undesired entries are cleared.

To delete entries from the current cursor position (seeming to the right of the insertion point), press DELETE key repeatedly until all the undesired entries have been removed.

In other words, the one difference between the manner in which the BACKSPACE key and the DELETE key clear entries is that the BACKSPACE key clears or removes text or graphics leftwards when no item is selected, while the DELETE key clears or removes text or graphics from the current cursor position (i.e. rightwards, to use a layman's term), when no item is selected.

So, when no item is selected and you intend to clear a character located at the left side of the insertion point/cursor, press the BACKSPACE key, but press the DELETE key only when you intend clearing characters sitting at the right side of the insertion point, when nothing is selected.



Insert Text
Occasions might arise in which you'll need to insert (add) text into a part of a document, such as inserting a letter into a word; or insert a word into a sentence; or a sentence into a paragraph; or a paragraph into a document. It is not uncommon that while typing, some characters sometimes stray into or miss out from the words we intended typing. This is most common with computer users that can't type without fixing their eyes on the keyboard. When such additions or omissions occur, such irrelevant characters need to be deleted or the missing characters re-inserted into the appropriate positions to make the document error-free.

For example, suppose you intended typing the "computer", but you mistakenly typed, "cmputer". On detecting the error, you sure would want to insert the missing letter, "o", to complete the word and make it meaningful.

Using the example above, the steps below show how to insert a missing character into an appropriate position in Word.
  1. Position the insertion point (cursor) in the exact position where you want to insert the character, (between 'c' and 'm' in the example above).
  2. Type the letter(s).

Insert a Paragraph before an Existing Paragraph
This operation could be a little tricky, especially for new computer users. Remember that in Word, a paragraph includes everything you typed before you pressed ENTER.

Suppose you have just created some paragraphs that include bulleted or numbered points. If later, you want to insert a bulleted or numbered point (a paragraph) before the first point (paragraph) or between any to bulleted or numbered points (paragraphs), follow the steps below to enable you accomplish the task:
  1. Position the cursor at the beginning of the first paragraph (or between any two paragraphs or points) where you want the new point (paragraph) to be.
  2. Press ENTER on the keyboard. This pushes/drops the existing point or paragraph down one line/space, leaving space for you to enter the new paragraph or point.
  • If you want to leave the space newly created blank, simply click the Numbering or Bullets icon/button on the Formatting toolbar to remove the numbering or bullet from that paragraph.


Undo Mistakes
Undo is an Edit menu command used for reversing the last action performed on a document. This helps revert the document to its previous state before the last action was performed.

Nobody is above a mistake, they say. But the consoling aspect is that Word can always revert to the previous state of a document i.e the state of the document before an undesirable action was performed.

So, whenever you find that the result of an action you performed is not exactly what you expected or desired, don't panic, the world has not come to an end, and you still have a hope, because Word offers you the UNDO command in the Edit menu to help you recover your document from a 'baaad' result.

Like most programs, Microsoft Word makes it possible to undo multiple actions with a mouse click. There are several ways of undoing actions in Word. Actions can be undone using any of the following:
  • Edit menu
  • Toolbar button
  • Shortcut keys

Undo Actions using the Edit Menu
  1. From the Menu bar, click Edit.
  2. Click Undo. 

Undo Actions Using the Toolbar
On the Standard toolbar, click the Undo button.A single click on the Undo button on the Standard toolbar reverses the very last action you took.


Undo Actions Using the Shortcut Keys
To reverse an action or a series of actions, you will find it very convenient, if not easiest, doing it from the keyboard.

Simply press Ctrl and Z keys simultaneously (Ctrl + Z).

Alternatively, use this combination of keys: Alt and Backspace (Alt + Backspace).

To undo multiple actions using they shortcut keys, press the combination of keys repeatedly until you are rid of all the undesirable results.


Undo Multiple Actions
Word also allows you to reverse (undo) more than one action at a time. In fact, you can reverse over seventy-five (75) actions at a time.


To undo multiple actions in Word,
  1. On the Standard toolbar, click the arrow next to the Undo button. Microsoft Word displays a list of the most recent actions you can undo.
  2. Click the action you want to undo. If you don't see the action, scroll through the list.
  • When you undo an action, you also undo all actions above it in the list.



Redo Actions
This is the command used for reversing the last Undo action. Like Undo, you can also redo multiple Undo actions in Word. Note, however, that you cannot redo any action until you have performed at least, one undo action. In fact, the Redo button will be unavailable (dimmed) and its icon name will change to Can't Redo, if there is no undone action to redo.

You can redo actions from the Edit menu, or from the Standard toolbar, or using shortcut keys.

To reverse (redo) the last Undo action,

Using the Edit Menu
On the Edit menu, click Redo. (The last undo action will be written after Redo  to let you know which action you are reversing, e.g. if your last Undo action was clearing a text, the command will read, 'Redo clear'.)
        
                                                                                     OR

Using the Standard Toolbar
Click Redo button on the Standard toolbar.  This will reverse the very last Undo action. If, however, you change your mind about this action, simply click the Undo button to reverse the action you just undid.

                                                                               OR

Using Shortcut Keys
Press Ctrl + Y



            OR

Press Alt + Shift + Backspace


Repeat Your Last Action
The Repeat command on the Edit menu is used to replicate (repeat) the last command or action you performed in a document in Word, if possible. For instance, if you delete a text from a line of text, you can delete succeeding characters or graphics in like manner using the Repeat command. If you cannot, or it's not possible, to repeat the last an action, the Repeat command changes to Can't Repeat.

To repeat a command,

On the Edit menu, click Repeat.

                       OR

              Press Ctrl + Y




The Office Clipboard
The Clipboard is a temporary storage location for the text and graphics you cut or copied. This is where the items are stored temporarily to enable you paste them into other locations within or outside the current application. Even after closing the active program, the item can still remain in the clipboard for use elsewhere. Each time you collect an item into the Clipboard using either the Cut or the Copy command, the old information on the Clipboard is immediately replaced with whatever you just cut or copied. Hence, only the last item you cut or copied is inserted when you issue the paste command.

However, it is also possible to collect several items, as many as twenty four (24), into the clipboard and paste each at random into any position where it may be required. To be able to collect several items into the Clipboard and paste each into any location where it is required in your document Word, you need to display the Microsoft Office Clipboard.

In Word 2002 or later, the Microsoft Office Clipboard displays in the Task pane. There are several ways of displaying the Microsoft Office Clipboard in Word 2002. These are:
  • Using the Edit menu
  • Using shortcut keys
  • From the Task pane
  • From the taskbar (if available
  • Cut or copy two different items successively in Word.
  • Cut or copy one item, paste it, and cut or copy another item in Word.

How to Display the Office Clipboard Using from the Edit Menu
  1. On the Menu bar, click Edit. This displays the Edit menu.
  2. From the Edit menu, click Office Clipboard.  
  • The Office Clipboard will now open in the Task pane. You will find a thumbnail of any item you cut or copy in it.
  • If you didn't see the Office Clipboard option on the Edit menu that appears, click the Chevron (the double down-pointing arrow) icon to display the remaining commands on the menu.


Displaying the Office Clipboard from Shortcut Keys
Perhaps the fastest way to invoke the Clipboard is through the use of a combination of keys.
To invoke the Clipboard, press Ctrl and C twice, repeatedly.

Ctrl + C twice



Displaying the Office Clipboard from the Task Pane

With the Task pane visibly displayed on screen,
  1. Click drop down arrow (the Other Task Panes button) on the title bar of the task pane.
  2. From the menu that drops down, click the Clipboard option.
  • Alternatively, click the navigation arrows on the title bar of the task pane until the word 'Clipboard' appears. The Clipboard is the second item on the menu.







Displaying the Office Clipboard from the Taskbar

This method is subject to the availability of the Office Clipboard icon on the system tray (on the taskbar). If Office Clipboard icon  is displayed on the system tray, then the Microsoft Office Clipboard is already displayed in at least one active Office program. In that case, you can easily display the Clipboard using the icon. To do this,

Simply double-click the iconThe Office Clipboard will then open in the Word.







Cut Text and Graphics
CUT is a command used for moving selected text or graphics from its position into the Clipboard so that it can be inserted (pasted) in other locations later. When an item is cut using the Cut command, the item is removed entirely from its present position, as if it was deleted, and moved into the Clipboard where it stays temporarily to be used in other locations within or outside the current document. You basically paste the cut item into any position where it is desirable.

When is it appropriate to cut an item, using the Cut command? Well, you basically use the Cut command on an item that is rather undesirable in its current position now, but which you wish to use in another location, within or outside the current document or in another appropriate program. However, if you do not want the item in its current position or elsewhere, simply delete it, rather than cut it.

You can cut a single or multiple items in a document. When you cut a single item into the Clipboard, you can paste it several times in the same or other locations later. However, you will not be able to paste such item after you cut or copied another item or after you turn off the computer. You need to display the Clipboard for you to be able to paste multiple items from it.

There are several ways you can cut a selected item using the Cut command. These include:
  • Using the Edit menu
  • Using the toolbar
  • Using shortcut/context menu
  • Using shortcut keys

Cutting Text or Graphics Using the Edit Menu
  1. Select the item you want to cut (move).
  2. On the Menu bar, click Edit.
  3. From the Edit menu, click Cut. 


Cutting Text or Graphics Using the Toolbar
  1. Select the item you want to cut
  2. Click the Cut button on the Standard toolbar.


Cutting Text or Graphics Using Shortcut/Context Menu
  1. Select the item to be cut.
  2. Right-click the selected/highlighted item. A shortcut menu appears.
  3. Click the Cut option on the shortcut menu.











Cutting Text or Graphics Using Shortcut Keys
Press Ctrl + X (or Alt + E + T)







Copy Text and Graphics
The COPY command replicates selected items. It is a fast way of sharing items within or outside a document or application is by copying and pasting the items. The COPY command basically moves a copy/duplicate of a selected text or graphic into the Clipboard so that it can be used (pasted) in other locations in or out of the document. Unlike the Cut command, the Copy command only moves a duplicate (copy) of the selected item into the Clipboard, leaving the original copy in its current position. This saves the stress of re-creating the item every where you need it.

So use the Copy command when the selected item is desirable in its current position as well as in other locations within or outside the document.

There are several ways you can copy a selected item using the Copy command. These include:
  • Using the Edit menu
  • Using the toolbar
  • Using shortcut/context menu
  • Using shortcut keys

Copying Text or Graphics Using the Edit Menu
  1. Select the item you want to copy.
  2. On the Menu bar, click Edit.
  3. From the Edit menu, click Copy. 


Copying Text or Graphics Using the Toolbar
  1. Select the item you want to copy.
  2. Click the Copy button on the Standard toolbar.


Copying Text or Graphics Using Shortcut/Context Menu
  1. Select the item to be copied.
  2. Right-click the selected/highlighted item. A shortcut menu appears.
  3. Click the Copy option on the shortcut menu.












Copying Text or Graphics Using Shortcut Keys
Press Ctrl + C (or Alt + E + C)








Paste Items
The PASTE command is used in inserting items collected into a document from the items previously collected into Clipboard. When you cut or copy an item, you typically use the Paste command to insert it in the new desired location. Note that you cannot use the Paste command unless you have cut or copied an item. Also, if you cut or copy multiple items, it is the item you cut or copied last that will be pasted, unless you display the Office Clipboard where you can select which item to paste.

There are several ways you can paste items into a document using the Paste command. These include:
  • Using the Edit menu
  • Using the toolbar
  • Using shortcut/context menu
  • Using shortcut keys

Pasting Text or Graphics Using the Edit Menu
  1. Place the cursor at the position/location where you want to paste the item.
  2. On the Menu bar, click Edit.
  3. From the Edit menu, click Paste. 


Pasting Text or Graphics Using the Toolbar
  1. Place the cursor at the position/location where you want to paste the item.
  2. Click the Paste button on the Standard toolbar.


Pasting Text or Graphics Using Shortcut/Context Menu
  1. Click the position/location where you want to paste the item.
  2. Click the right mouse button. A shortcut menu appears.
  3. On the shortcut menu click Paste.












Pasting Text or Graphics Using Shortcut Keys
Press Ctrl + V (or Alt + E + P)















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